2 edition of Mineralogical and elemental description of Pacific manganese nodules found in the catalog.
Mineralogical and elemental description of Pacific manganese nodules
Benjamin W. Haynes
Bibliography: p. 57-59.
|Statement||by Benjamin W. Haynes, Stephen L. Law, and David C. Barron.|
|Series||Information circular / Bureau of Mines ;, 8906, Information circular (United States. Bureau of Mines) ;, 8906.|
|Contributions||Law, Stephen L., Barron, David C.|
|LC Classifications||TN295 .U4 no. 8906, QE390.2.M35 .U4 no. 8906|
|The Physical Object|
|Pagination||v, 60 p. :|
|Number of Pages||60|
|LC Control Number||82600495|
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Additional Physical Format: Online version: Haynes, Benjamin W. Mineralogical and elemental description of Pacific manganese nodules. [Washington, D.C.]: U.S. Dept. From Abstract: "The Bureau of Mines conducted research to provide technical information needed to devise waste management plans for the processing of manganese s included summary descriptions of Pacific manganese nodules, process options and flowsheets, method for characterizing nodules and their tailings, and results of analyses of laboratory and pilot-plant.
GEOLOGICAL MAP OF MANGANESE NODULES DISTRIBUTION IN THE CENTRAL PACIFIC OCEAN [Geological Survey of Japan(eds.)] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. GEOLOGICAL MAP OF MANGANESE NODULES DISTRIBUTION IN THE CENTRAL PACIFIC OCEANAuthor: Geological Survey of Japan(eds.).
Full text of "Mineralogical and elemental description of Pacific manganese nodules" See other formats. This paper presents an overview of recent research completed by the Bureau of Mines for manganese nodules and crusts collected from the Pacific Ocean. Included are elemental and mineralogical compositional analyses, methods of analysis for the minerals and wastes from processing, and process by: 2.
The elemental characterization of Pacific manganese nodules is a topic addressed by many authors. Major element composition of these nodules is well established, whereas data on many minor and most trace elements are limited.
This sec- tion summarizes available data on most of the elements, and. Usui, A.,Minerals, metal contents, and mechanism of formation of manganese nodules from the central Pacific Basin (GH76–1 and GH77–1 areas), In: Bischoff, J.L.
and Piper, D.Z. (eds.) Marine geology and oceanography of the Pacific Manganese Nodule Province; Plenum Press, New York, pp. – Google Scholar. Piper, D.Z., and Williamson, M.F., Regional variations in the elemental and mineralogical composition of ferromanganese nodules from the pelagic environment of the Pacific Ocean.
Marine Geology, – Google Scholar. Mn-Cu-Ni-rich nodules are shown to occur dominantly in ocean basins and Fe-Co-rich nodules in elevated regions. Metalliferous sediments occur dominantly along the crest of the East Pacific Rise where nodules are largely absent.
The distribution patterns suggest that the formation of manganese nodules and metalliferous sediments is mutually. The existence of manganese (Mn) nodules (Figure 1) has been known since the late s when they were collected during the Challenger expedition of – However, it was not until after WWII that nodules were further studied in detail for their ability to adsorb metals from seawater.
Many of the early studies did not distinguish Mn nodules from Mn crusts. Extensive deposits of Mn oxides occur as nodules, micro-concretions, coatings and crusts at the bottom of the seas and oceans, covering ∼ % of the deep Pacific floor (Crerar & Barnes, ; Menard & Shipek, ).
Continental runoff and hydrothermal/volcanic activity are thought to be the main sources for the formation of these deposits. economic concentrations of manganese nodules in the South Pacific should be restricted to the deep ocean basins.
INTRODUCTION To date, exploration for manganese nodules of economic grade has centred mainly on the North Pacific, particularly in the red clay and siliceous ooze areas south of Hawaii.
Nodules that cover the sea floor of the tropical North Pacific may represent a vast ore de posit of manganese, nickel, cobalt, and copper. Modern technology has apparently surmounted the incredible problem of recovering nodules in water depths of meters and the Mineralogical and elemental description of Pacific manganese nodules book of metals from the complex chemical nodule Mineralogical and elemental description of Pacific manganese nodules book is a reality.
Deep-Sea Research,Vol. 16, pp. to Pergamon Pre~s. Printed in Great Britain. The geochemistry of manganese nodules and associated pelagic deposits from the Pacific and Indian Oceans D.
CRONAN* and J. Toois"f (Received 12 September ) A~traetChemical and mineralogical analyses of manganese nodules from a largenumber of widely spaced localities in the Pacific. Geochemical evidence suggests processes (1) and (2) occur at all three MANOP nodule-bearing sites, and process (3) occurs only at the hemipelagic site, H, which underlies the relatively productive waters of the eastern tropical Pacific.
A normative model quantitatively accounts for the variability observed in nearly all elements. Organic carbon decomposition rates in sediments of the Pacific manganese nodule belt dated by Th and Pa Earth Planet. Sei. Lett. Piper, D.Z., Blueford, J.R., Distribution, mineralogy, and texture of manganese nodules and their relation to sedi- mentation at DOMES Site A in the equatorial north Pacific.
Deep-Sea Res. The nodule morphology section defines what is considered a nodule for the study, and details the external characteristics and internal structure.
Nodule mineralogy is discussed in three sections: manganese minerals, iron oxide minerals, and accessory minerals. Chemical analyses have been made of samples of manganese nodules from about stations in the Pacific Ocean.
Within a local area, the composition of the nodules is quite uniform. ABSTRACT Manganese nodules in the northern part of the Central Pacific Basin are morphologically classified into two, r (rough) and s (smooth) groups. Nickel plus copper grade and abundance of nodules is weakly inversely correlated in general, related to the nodule morphology and mineralogy.
Mineralogical differences between nodules influence their chemical compositions, Ni and Cu being most abundant in samples rich in todorokite and Co in those rich in δMnO 2. Chemically, the deposits differ from those in other major oceans principally in their higher Fe and lower Ni and Cu contents, which may be due to higher rates of supply of.
Mineralogy, chemistry and microstructure of deep sea manganese nodules from the Central Pacific Basin have been studied by means of X-ray diffraction analysis, microspopy and electron microprobe analysis. The manganese nodules are composed of microscopically laminated phases of 10Å manganite and δ-MnO 2.
Nine nodules collected from throughout the deep North Pacific were analyzed for their mineralogy and major-element composition before and after leaching with Chester-Hughes solution.
Data indicate that the mineral phillipsite accounts for the major part (> 75%) of the aluminosilicate fraction of all nodules.
Periodic trends in element enrichments in Pacific manganese nodules: the role of lattice energies. Mar. Chem., Trends in element enrichments in Pacific ferromanganese nodules are reported and are discussed in terms of the element's position in the periodic table and its. The Cook Islands (CIs) Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) encompasses 1, km2 and includes the Penrhyn and Samoa basins abyssal plains where manganese nodules flourish due to the availability of prolific nucleus material, slow sedimentation rates, and strong bottom currents.
A group of CIs nodules was analyzed for mineralogical and chemical composition, which include many critical metals not. The distribution of rare earth and minor elements in manganese nodules and sediments from the equatorial and S.W. Pacific. Lithos, 62 manganese nodules and 17 associated sediments from the equatorial and S.W.
Pacific have been analyzed for a number of elements, including the rare earth elements (REE), by instrumental neutron activation.English, Book, Illustrated edition: The Manganese nodule belt of the Pacific Ocean: geological environment, nodule formation, and mining aspects / edited by.
Manganese nodules, also referred to as polymetallic nodules, consists of iron and manganese hydroxides around a core. Varies in size from 3 to 20 centimeters.
Largest deposit in the north central Pacific Ocean, with approximately over 21 billion tons, on a depth of to meters. Nodules that cover the sea floor of the tropical North Pacific may represent a vast ore de posit of manganese, nickel, cobalt, and copper.
Modern technology has apparently surmounted the incredible problem of recovering nodules in water depths of meters and the extraction of metals from the complex chemical nodule matrix is a : Paperback. In iron-manganese nodules from the floor of Pacific ocean, Baltic, White Sea and Kara Sea, iron bydroxide δ'-FeOOH was analysed in the laboratory.
In buried ooze, reduction processes generate Fe(HCO3)2 which migrates into the upper part of the bottom ooze and into near bottom sea water where Fe(OH)2 is formed. The oxidation process of Fe2+ to Fe3+, without participation of iron bacteria.
HnAHvntC GEOLOGY ELSEVIER Marine Geology () Mineralogical control on transition metal distributions in marine manganese nodules Guobin Lei1, Kurt Bostr Department of Geology and Geochemistry, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden Received 7 July ; revision accepted 8 February Abstract Electron microprobe and X-ray diffraction data for north Pacific manganese nodules reveal that the transition metal distributions are controlled by the mineralogy.
Other articles where Manganese nodule is discussed: authigenic sediment: Manganese nodules are pebbles or stones about the size of walnuts that are built of onionlike layers of manganese and iron oxides. Minor constituents include copper, nickel, and cobalt, making the nodules a potential ore of these valuable elements.
Mining of manganese nodules has been. The Bureau of Mines conducted research to provide technical information needed to devise waste management plans for the processing of manganese nodules. Studies included summary descriptions of Pacific manganese nodules, process options and flowsheets, methods for characterizing nodules and their tailings, and results of analyses of laboratory.
Abstract This paper presents an overview of recent research completed on manganese nodules and crusts collected from the Pacific ocean.
Included are elemental and mineralogical compositional analyses, methods of analysis for the minerals and wastes from processing, and process metallurgy.
Pacific Ocean nodules.9, 15 Studies on REE of Indian Ocean manganese nodules are rare and are mostly concentrated on the nodules of the Central Indian Basin−19 To the best of our knowledge, such detail studies including characterization of elements like that in Pacific Ocean nodules have not been carried out on the Indian Ocean nodules.
The mineral composition of manganese-bearing minerals is dependent on how the nodules are formed; sedimentary nodules, which have a lower Mn 2+ content than diagenetic, are dominated by Fe-vernadite, Mn-feroxyhyte, and asbolane-buserite while diagenetic nodules are dominated by buserite I, birnessite, todorokite, and asbolane-buserite.
The growth types termed diagenetic and hydrogenetic. A brief description of manganese nodule morphology and mineralogy is given, and detailed information on 74 elements in Pacific manganese nodules is presented.
For the major elements and some minor and trace elements, the data are divided into four areas of the Pacific: the Clarion-Clipperton fracture zone region, the mid-Pacific seamount region. Studies included summary descriptions of Pacific manganese nodules, process options and flowsheets, methods for characterizing nodules and their tailings, and results of analyses of laboratory and pilot-plant generated tailings.
This information is the result of a cooperative research effort of the Bureau of Mines and the National Oceanic and. Iron–Manganese Nodules in Udepts: The Dependence Most studies on nodules from the Pacific region (e.g., from China, Japan, Taiwan, and the Far East of Russia) have been Site Description.
Polymetallic Manganese Nodule Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone, well-defined. Manganese nodules are the most widespread undersea mineral resource, composed mainly of manganese minerals and are found in lumps of up to about 10 centimeters in diameter.
Collection Site: Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone, Pacific Ocean floor. Manganese nodules on the southern Pacific Ocean floor. Courtesy of the Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Columbia University; Most of the manganese produced is used in the form of ferromanganese and silicomanganese alloys for iron and steel manufacture.
Manganese ores containing iron oxides are first reduced in blast furnaces or electric furnaces with carbon to yield. The estimated age of these nodules is approximately million years old. Location: Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone, Pacific Ocean; The nodules can have folds and mammilated (knobby) surfaces that are irregular to smooth in shape and size.
The manganese nodules were obtained in a scientific materials trade with a university, in Two Fe–Mn crusts among 35 samples, from six seamounts in the Canary Island Seamount Province, were selected as representatives of the endpoint members of two distinct types of genetic processes, i.e., mixed diagenetic/hydrogenetic and purely hydrogenetic.
High-resolution analyses pursued the main aim of distinguishing the critical elements and their association with mineral phases and.Mineralogy, chemistry and microstructure of deep sea manganese nodules from the Central Pacific Basin have been studied by means of X-ray diffraction analysis, microspopy and electron microprobe.